Welcome to The Robin Hood Virus
A Book by Robert Nerbovig

                         Computer Infection Definitions

                                                   The Robin Hood Virus / 158 Computer hacking is the act of modifying computer hardware or software, in order to cause damage to sensitive data on a computer or to simply steal confidential information. People who engage in computer hacking activities are called "Crackers". Crackers are out to steal personal information, change a corporation's financial data, break security codes to gain unauthorized network access, enter government websites or pentagon files, or conduct other destructive activities for financial gain or military superiority. Computer crackers often target computers that are connected to the Internet. Information critical to national security, confidential government data, information related to national defense, security and

                                                    The Robin Hood Virus / 159 crime, if exposed by means of hacking, can have grave consequences on the welfare of the nation. Hacking of highly sensitive data can potentially risk the national security and threaten the overall well being of the country's citizens. Hacking can be used to convert computers into zombies i.e. Internet-enabled computers that are compromised by crackers or computer viruses. Examples of hacking include:
SQL injections (attack on a database)
DDoS (attack on a website. denial of service)
Script Injection (attack on any kind of software)
Social engineering (tricks played on people to get them to divulge information)
Dumpster diving (raking through bins to

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find information about a companies computer systems)
Phone Phreaking (methods of bypassing some automated systems on telephones)
Keylogging (purposely installing software that records keystrokes of the user, to gain information about them)
Another unsavory breed of malicious code are Trojans or Trojan horses, which unlike viruses, do not reproduce by infecting other files, nor do they self-replicate like worms. In fact, it is a program that disguises itself as a useful program or application. Beware of the fact that these viruses copy files in your computer (when their carrier program is executed) that can damage your data, and even

                                                    The Robin Hood Virus / 161 delete it. The attacker can also program the Trojans in such a manner that the information in your computer is accessible to them.
LOGIC BOMBS: They are not considered viruses because they do not replicate. They are not even programs in their own right, but rather camouflaged segments of other programs. They are only executed when a certain predefined condition is met. Their objective is to destroy data on the computer once certain conditions have been met. Logic bombs go undetected until launched, the results can be destructive, and your entire data can be deleted! A "black hat" cracker violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain. Black hat

                                                    The Robin Hood Virus / 162 crackers form the stereotypical, illegal hacking groups often portrayed in popular culture, and are the epitome of all that the public fears in a computer criminal. Black hat crackers break into secure networks to destroy data or make the network unusable for those who are authorized to use the network(DDoS). They choose their targets using a two-pronged process known as the "pre-hacking stage".
Stage 1: Targeting
The cracker determines what network to break into during this phase. The target may be of particular interest to the cracker, either politically or personally, or it may be picked at random. Next, they will port scan a network to determine if it is vulnerable to attacks, which is just testing all ports on a

                                                    The Robin Hood Virus / 163 host machine for a response. Open ports-those that do respond will allow a cracker to access the system.
Stage 2: Research and Information Gathering
It is in this stage that the cracker will visit or contact the target in some way in hopes of finding out vital information that will help them access the system. Aside from social engineering, crackers can also use a technique called "dumpster diving". Dumpster diving is when a cracker will literally search through users' garbage in hopes of finding documents that have been thrown away, which may contain information a cracker can use directly or indirectly, to help them gain access to a network.

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Stage 3: Finishing The Attack
This is the stage when the cracker will invade the primary target that he/she was planning to attack or steal from. Many "crackers" will be caught after this point, lured in or grabbed by any data also known as a honeypot (a trap set up by computer security personnel). A typical approach in an attack on an Internet-connected system is:
Network enumeration:
Discovering information about the intended target.
Vulnerability analysis:
Identifying potential ways of attack.

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Attempting to compromise the system by employing the vulnerabilities found through the vulnerability analysis. In order to do so, there are several recurring tools of the trade and techniques used by computer criminals and security experts.
Vulnerability scanner:
A vulnerability scanner is a tool used to quickly check computers on a network for known weaknesses. Crackers also commonly use port scanners. These check to see which ports on a specified computer are "open" or available to access the computer, and sometimes will detect what program or service is listening on that port, and its version number.

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Password cracking:
Password cracking is the process of recovering passwords from data that has been stored in or transmitted by a computer system. A common approach is to repeatedly try guesses for the password.
Packet sniffer:
A packet sniffer is an application that captures data packets, which can be used to capture passwords and other data in transit over the network.
Spoofing attack (Phishing):
A spoofing attack involves one program, system, or website successfully masquerading as another by falsifying data and thereby being treated as a trusted system by a user or

                                                    The Robin Hood Virus / 167 another program. The purpose of this is usually to fool programs, systems, or users into revealing confidential information, such as user names and passwords, to the attacker.
A rootkit is designed to conceal the compromise of a computer's security, and can represent any of a set of programs that work to subvert control of an operating system from its legitimate operators. Usually, a rootkit will obscure its installation and attempt to prevent its removal through a subversion of standard system security. Rootkits may include replacements for system binaries so that it becomes impossible for the legitimate user to detect the presence of the intruder on the system by looking at process tables.

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Trojan horses:
A Trojan horse is a program that seems to be doing one thing, but is actually doing another. A Trojan horse can be used to set up a back door in a computer system such that the intruder can gain access later.
A virus is a self-replicating program that spreads by inserting copies of itself into other executable code or documents. Therefore, a computer virus behaves in a way similar to a biological virus, which spreads by inserting itself into living cells.
Like a virus, a worm is also a self-replicating program. A worm differs from a

                                                    The Robin Hood Virus / 169 virus in that it propagates through computer networks without user intervention. Unlike a virus, it does not need to attach itself to an existing program.
Key loggers
A key logger is a tool designed to record ('log') every keystroke on an affected machine for later retrieval. Its purpose is usually to allow the user of this tool to gain access to confidential information typed on the affected machine, such as a user's password or other private data. Some key loggers use virus, Trojan, and rootkit like methods to remain active and hidden. However, some key loggers are used in legitimate ways and sometimes to even enhance computer security. As an example, a business might have a key logger on a

                                                    The Robin Hood Virus / 170 computer used at a point of sale and data collected by the key logger could be used for catching employee fraud.

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